For the most up to date publication list, see Google Scholar


  1. A. Savva, C. Cendra, A. Giugni, B. Torre, J. Surgailis, D. Ohayon, A. Giovannitti, I. McCulloch, E. Di Fabrizio, A. Salleo, J. Rivnay, S. Inal, "Influence of Water on the Performance of Organic Electrochemical Transistors", Chemistry of Materials, ASAP (2019).

  2. C. Cendra, A. Giovannitti, A. Savva, V. Venkatraman, I. McCulloch, A. Salleo, S. Inal, J. Rivnay, "Role of the Anion on the Transport and Structure of Organic Mixed Conductors" Advanced Functional Materials, Early View 1807034 (2018).

  3. J.T. Friedlein, R.R. McLeod, J. Rivnay, “Device physics of organic electrochemical transistors, ”Organic Electronics, 63, 398 (2018).

  4. A. Shirinskaya, G. Horowitz, J. Rivnay, G Malliaras, Y Bonnassieux, “Numerical Modeling of an Organic Electrochemical Transistor,” Biosensors, 8, 103 (2018).

  5. S.-M. Kim, C.-H. Kim, Y. Kim, N. Kim, W.-J. Lee, E. Lee, D. Kim, S. Park, K. Lee, J. Rivnay, M.-H. Yoon, “Influence of PEDOT:PSS crystallinity and composition on electrochemical transistor performance and long-term stability,” Nature Communications, 9, 3858 (2018).

  6. L.R. Savagian, A.M. Österholm, J.F. Ponder Jr, K.J. Barth, J. Rivnay, J.R. Reynolds, “Balancing Charge Storage and Mobility in an Oligo (Ether) Functionalized Dioxythiophene Copolymer for Organic‐and Aqueous‐Based Electrochemical Devices and Transistors,” Advanced Materials, 30, 1804647 (2018).

  7. V. Venkatraman, J.T. Friedlein, A. Giovannitti, I.P. Maria, I. McCulloch, R.R. McLeod, J. Rivnay, "Subthreshold operation of organic electrochemical transistors for bio-signal amplification," Advanced Science, 5, 1800453 (2018).

  8. S.M. Won, E. Song, J. Zhao, J. Li, J. Rivnay, J.A. Rogers, "Recent Advances in Materials, Devices, and Systems for Neural Interfaces," Advanced Materials, 30, 1800534 (2018).

  9. S. Inal, J. Rivnay, A.-O. Suiu, G.G. Malliaras, I. McCulloch, “Conjugated Polymers in Bioelectronics,” Acc. Chem. Res., 51, 1368 (2018).

  10. A.M. Pappa, D. Ohayon, A. Giovannitti, I..P. Maria, A. Savva, I. Uguz, J. Rivnay, I. McCulloch, R.M. Owens, S. Inal, “Direct metabolite detection with an n-type accumulation mode organic electrochemical transistor,” Science Advances, 4, eaat0911 (2018).

  11. A. Giovannitti**, I. P. Maria, D. Hanifi, M.J. Donahue, D. Bryant, K.J. Barth, B.E. Makdah, A. Savva, D. Moia, M. Zetek, P.R.F. Barnes, O.G. Reid, S. Inal, G. Rumbles, G.G. Malliaras, J. Nelson, J. Rivnay**, I. McCulloch, “The Role of the Side Chain on the Performance of N-type Conjugated Polymers in Aqueous Electrolytes,” Chem. Mater., 30, 2945-2953 (2018).

  12. A. Giovannitti, K.J. Thorley, C.B. Nielsen, J. Li, M.J. Donahue, G.G. Malliaras, J. Rivnay, I. McCulloch, “Redox-Stability of Alkoxy-BDT Copolymers and their Use for Organic Bioelectronic Devices.” Adv. Func. Mater. 1706325 (2018).

  13. J. Rivnay**, S. Inal, A. Salleo, R.M. Owens, M. Berggren, G.G. Malliaras, “Organic electrochemical transistors.” Nat. Rev. Mater. 3, 17086 (2018).

  14. D. Kiefer, A. Giovannitti, H. Sun, T. Biskup, A. Hofmann, M. Koopmans, C. Cendra, S. Weber, L.J.A. Koster, E. Olsson, J. Rivnay, S. Fabiano, I. McCulloch, C. Müller, “Enhanced n-Doping Efficiency of a Naphthalenediimide-Based Copolymer through Polar Side Chains for Organic Thermoelectrics,” ACS Energy Letters, 3, 278-285 (2018).


  1. S. Inal, G.G. Malliaras, J. Rivnay, “Benchmarking organic mixed conductors for transistors,” Nature Communications, 8(1), 1767 (2017).

  2. J.T. Friedlein, J. Rivnay, D.H. Dunlap, I. McCulloch, S.E. Shaheen, R.R. McLeod, G.G. Malliaras, “Influence of disorder on transfer characteristics of organic electrochemical transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 023301, (2017).

  3. J. Rivnay**, H. Wang, L. Fenno, K. Deisseroth, G.G. Malliaras, “Next generation probes, particles, and proteins for neural interfacing,” Science Advances, 3, e1601649 (2017).  

Pre-Northwestern publications

  1. Sharma, G. Andersson, J. Rivnay, J.F. Alvino, G.F. Metha, M.R. Andersson, K. Zuber, M. Fabretto, “Insights into the Oxidant/Polymer Interfacial Growth of Vapor Phase Polymerized PEDOT Thin Films,” Adv. Mater. Interface. Early View (2018).

  2. X. Strakosas, M. Huerta, M.J. Donahue, A. Hama, A.-M. Pappa, M. Ferro, M. Ramuz, J. Rivnay, R.M. Owens, “Catalytically enhanced organic transistors for in vitro toxicology monitoring through hydrogel entrapment of enzymes” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 134, 44483 (2017).

  3. D.E. Schwartz, J. Rivnay, G.L. Whiting, P. Mei, Y. Zhang, B. Krusor, S. Kor, G. Daniel, S.E. Ready, J. Veres, R.A. Street, “Flexible hybrid electronic circuits and systems” IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems, 7(1), 27-37 (2017).

  4. V.F. Curto, B. Marchiori, A. Hama, A.-M. Pappa, M. Ferro, M. Braendlein, J. Rivnay, M. Fiocchi, G.G. Malliaras, M. Ramuz, R.M. Owens. “An organic transistor platform with integrated microfluidics for in-line multi-parametric in vitro cell monitoring,” Microsystems & Nanoengineering. 3, 17028 (2017).

  5. A. Giovannitti*, D.-T. Sbircea*, S. Inal, C.B. Nielsen, E. Bandiello, D.A. Hanifi, M. Sessolo, G.G. Malliaras, I. McCulloch, J. Rivnay, “Controlling the mode of operation of organic transistors through side chain engineering” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, 113, 12017-12022 (2016).

  6. A. Giovannitti, C.B. Nielsen, D.-T-. Sbircea, S. Inal, M. Donahue, M.R. Niazi, D.A. Hanifi, A. Amassian, G.G. Malliaras, J. Rivnay, I. McCulloch, “N-type organic electrochemical transistors with stability in water,” Nature Communications, 7, 13066 (2016).

  7. W. Lee, D. Kim, J. Rivnay, N. Matsuhisa, T. Lonjaret, T. Yokota, H. Yawo, M. Sakino, G.G. Malliaras, T. Someya, “Integration of organic electrochemical and field-effect transistors for ultaflexible, high temporal resolution electrophysiology arrays,” Advanced Materials, Early View (2016).

  8. J. Rivnay**, S. Inal, B.A. Collins, M. Sessolo, E. Stavrinidou, X. Strakosas, C. Tassone, D.M. Delongchamp, G.G. Malliaras, “Structural control of mixed ionic and electronic transport in conducting polymers,” Nature Communications, 7, 11287 (2016).

  9. A. Jonsson*, S. Inal*, I. Uguz*, A.J. Williamson*, L. Kergoat, J. Rivnay, D. Khodagholy, M. Berggren, C. Bernard, G. G. Malliaras, D.T. Simon, “The bioelectronics neural pixel: Chemical stimulation and electrical sensing at the same site,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 113,9440 (2016).

  10. S. Inal, G.G. Malliaras, J. Rivnay, “Optical study of electrochromic moving fronts for the investigation of ion transport in conducting polymers,” Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 4, 3942 (2016). [Emerging Young Investigator’s issue, 2016]

  11. J. Rivnay, “Organic Electronics: Efficiency through dilution,” Nature Materials, 15, 594 (2016).

  12. C.B. Nielsen, A. Giovannitti, D.-T. Sbircea, E. Bandiello, M.R. Niazi, D.A. Hanifi, M. Sessolo, A. Amassian, G.G. Malliaras, J. Rivnay, I. McCulloch, “Molecular design of semiconducting polymers of high-performance organic electrochemical transistors,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, 138, 10252 (2016).

  13. C.M. Proctor, J. Rivnay, G.G. Malliaras, “Understanding volumetric capacitance in conducting polymers,” Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, 54, 1433 (2016).

  14. M. Huerta, J. Rivnay, A. Hama, M. Ramuz, R.M. Owens, “Early detection of nephrotoxicity in vitro using a transparent conducting polymer device,” Applied In Vitro Toxicology, 2, 17 (2016).

  15. A. Giovannitti, C. Nielsen, J. Rivnay, M. Kirkus, D. Harkin, A.J.P. White, H. Sirringhaus, G.G. Malliaras, I. McCulloch, “Sodium and potassium selective conjugated polymers for optical solid state sensors,” Advanced Functional Materials, 26, 514 (2016).

  16. S. Inal,* J. Rivnay,* A.I. Hoffman, I. Uguz, M. Mumtaz, D. Katsigiannopoulos, C. Brochon, E. Cloutet, G. Hadziioannou, G.G. Malliaras, “Organic Electrochemical Transistors Based on PEDOT with Different Anionic Polyelectrolyte Dopants,” Journal of Polymer Science: Part B: Polymer Physics, 54,147 (2016).

  17. J. Rivnay**, P. Leleux, A. Hama, M. Ramuz, M. Huerta, G.G. Malliaras, R.M. Owens, “Using white noise to gate organic transistors for dynamic monitoring of cultured cell layers,” Scientific Reports, 5, 11613 (2015).

  18. J. Rivnay, P. Leleux, M. Ferro, M. Sessolo, A. Williamson, D.A. Koutsouras, D. Khodagholy, M. Ramuz, X. Strakosas, R.M. Owens, C. Benar, J.-M. Badier, C. Bernard, G.G. Malliaras, “High performance transistors for bioelectronics through tuning of channel thickness,” Science Advances, 1, e1400251 (2015).

  19. M. Ramuz, A. Hama, J. Rivnay, P. Leleux, R.M. Owens, “Monitoring of cell layer coverage and differentiation with the organic electrochemical transistor,” J. Mater. Chem. B., 3, 5971-5977 (2015).

  20. F. Paquin, J. Rivnay, A. Salleo, N. Stingelin, C. Silva-Acuña, “Multi-phase microstructures drive exciton dissociation in neat semicrystalline polymeric semiconductors,” J. Mater. Chem. C, Advance Article, doi:10.1039/C5TC02043C, (2015). [also: arXiv preprint, arXiv:1310.8002 (2013).]

  21. A. Williamson, M. Ferro, P. Leleux, A. Kaszas, T. Doublet, P. Quilichini, A. Ivanov, E. Ismailova, J. Rivnay, C. Bernard, G.G. Malliaras, “Localized stimulation of neurons with organic electrochemical transistors on delaminating polymer depth probes,” Advanced Materials, 27, 4405-4410 (2015).

  22. A. Williamson*, J. Rivnay*, L. Kergoat*, S. Inal, A. Jonsson, I. Uguz, M. Ferro, A. Ivanov, D.T. Simon, M. Berggren, G.G. Malliaras, C. Bernard, “Controlling Epileptiform Activity with Organic Electronic Ion Pumps”, Advanced Materials, 27, 3138-3144 (2015). [Featured on front cover].

  23. S. Himmelberger, D.T. Duong, J.E. Northrup, J. Rivnay, B.S. Beckingham, F.P.V. Koch, N. Stingelin, R.A. Segalman, S.C.B. Mannsfeld, A. Salleo, “Role of Side-Chain Branching on Thin-film Structure and Electronic Properties of Polythiophenes,” Advanced Functional Materials, 25, 2616-2624 (2015).

  24. M. Ramuz, K. Margita, A. Hama, P. Leleux, J. Rivnay, I. Bazin, R.M. Owens, “Optimization of a Planar All-Polymer Transistor for Characterization of Barrier Tissue,” ChemPhysChem, 16, 1210-1216 (2015).

  25. J. Rivnay**, M. Ramuz, P. Leleux, A. Hama, M. Huerta, R.M. Owens, “Organic electrochemical transistors for cell-based impedance sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 106, 043301 (2015).

  26. M. Huerta, J. Rivnay, M. Ramuz, A. Hama, R.M. Owens, “Electrical monitoring of cysts using organic electrochemical transistors,” APL Materials, 3,030701 (2015).

  27. C. Wang, D.T. Duong, K. Vandewal, J. Rivnay, A. Salleo, “Optical measurement of doping efficiency in Poly(3-hexylthiophene) solutions and thin films,” Phys. Rev. B, 91, 085205 (2015).

  28. P. Leleux, J. Rivnay, J.-M. Badier, C. Bénar, T. Hervé, P. Chauvel, G.G. Malliaras, “Organic electrochemical transistors for clinical applications,” Advanced Healthcare Materials, 4, 142-147 (2015).

  29. G.C. Faria, D.T. Duong, C.A. Polyzoidis, J. Rivnay, S. Logothetidis, R.M. Owens, G.G. Malliaras, A. Salleo, “Organic Electrochemical Transistors as Impedance Biosensors,” MRS Communications, 4, 189-194 (2014).

  30. S. Inal, J. Rivnay, P. Leleux, M. Ferro, J.C. Brendel, M. Thelakkat, G.G. Malliaras, “High Transconductance Accumulation Model Electrochemical Transistor,” Advance Materials, 26, 7450-7455 (2014).

  31. M. Ramuz, A. Hama, M. Huerta, J. Rivnay, P. Leleux, R.M. Owens, “Combined Optical and Electronic Sensing of Epithelial Cells using Planar Organic Transistors,” Advanced Materials, 26, 7083-7090 (2014).

  32. M. Sessolo, J. Rivnay, E. Bandiello, G.G. Malliaras, H.J. Bolink, “Ion-Selective Organic Electrochemical Transistors,” Advanced Materials, 26, 4803-4807 (2014).

  33. P. Leleux, C. Johnson, X. Strakosas, J. Rivnay, T. Herve, R.M. Owens, G.G. Malliaras, “Ionic liquid gel-assisted electrodes for long-term cutaneous recordings,” Advanced Healthcare Materials, 3, 1377-1380 (2014).

  34. S. Tria, M. Ramuz, M. Huerta, P. Leleux, J. Rivnay, L.H. Jimison, A. Hama, G.G. Malliaras, R.M. Owens, “Dynamic monitoring of Salmonella typhumurium infection of polarised epithelia using organic transistors,” Advanced Healthcare Materials, 3, 1053-1060 (2014).

  35. J. Rivnay, R.M. Owens, G.G. Malliaras, “The rise of organic bioelectronics,” Chemistry of Materials, 26, 679-685 (2013). [Invited perspective for 25th Anniversary]

  36. J. Rivnay, P. Leleux, M. Sessolo, D. Khodagholy, T. Herve, M. Fiocchi, G.G. Malliaras, “Organic electrochemical transistors with maximum transconductance at zero gate bias,” Advanced Materials, 25, 7010-7014 (2013).

  37. X. Strakosas, M. Sessolo, A. Hama, J. Rivnay, E. Stavrinidou, G.G. Malliaras, R.M. Owens, “A facile biofunctionalisation route for solution processable conducting polymer devices,” Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 2, 2537-2545 (2014).

  38. E. Stavrinidou, O. Winther-Jensen, B.S. Shekibi, V. Armel, J. Rivnay, E. Ismailova, S. Sanaur, G.G. Malliaras, B. Winther-Jensen, “Enhanced and tunable ion mobility in hydrophilic and biocompatible conducting polymer composites,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 16, 2275-2279 (2014).

  39. P. Leleux, J.-M. Badier, J. Rivnay, C. Benar, T. Herve, P. Chauvel, G.G. Malliaras, “Conducting polymer electrodes of electroencephalography,” Advanced Healthcare Materials, 3, 490-493 (2014).

  40. V. Armel, J. Rivnay, G. Malliaras, B. Winther-Jensen, “Unexpected interaction between PEDOT and phosphonium ionic liquids.” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 135,11309-11313 (2013).

  41. D. Khodagholy,* J. Rivnay,* M. Sessolo,* M. Gurfinkel, P. Leleux, L.H. Jimison, E. Stravrinidou, T. Herve, S. Sanaur, R.M. Owens, G.G. Malliaras, “High transconductance organic electrochemical transistors.” Nature Communications, 4:2133 doi:10.1038/ncomms3133 (2013).

  42. R. Noriega,* J. Rivnay,* K. Vandewal, F. Koch, P. Smith, N. Stingelin, M.F. Toney, A. Salleo, “A general relationship between disorder, aggregation and charge transport in conjugated polymers.” Nature Materials, 12, 1038–1044 (2013).

  43. F. Koch, J. Rivnay, S. Foster, C. Müller, J. Downing, E. Buchaca-Domingo, P. Westacott, L. Yu, M. Yuan, M. Baklar, C. Luscombe, M. McLachlan, M. Heeney, C. Silva, A. Salleo, J. Nelson, P. Smith, N. Stingelin, “The impact of molecular weight on microstructure and charge transport in semicrystalline polymer semiconductors–poly (3-hexylthiophene), a model study.” Progress in Polymer Science, 38, 1978-1989 (2013).

  44. L.H. Jimison, S. Himmelberger, D.T. Duong, J. Rivnay, M.F. Toney, A. Salleo, “Vertical confinement and interface effects on the microstructure and charge transport of P3HT thin films.” Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, 51, 611-620 (2013).

  45. E. Stravrinidou, P. Leleux, H. Rajaona, D. Khodagholy, J. Rivnay, M. Lindau, S. Sanaur, G.G. Malliaras, “Direct measurement of ion mobility in a conducting polymer.” Advanced Materials, 25, 4488-4493 (2013).

  46. C. Wang, J. Rivnay, S. Himmelberger, K. Vakhshouri, M.F. Toney, E.D. Gomez, A. Salleo, “Ultra-thin body poly(3-hexylthiophene) transistors with improved short-channel performance.” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 5, 2342–2346 (2013).

  47. M. Sessolo, D. Khodagholy, J. Rivnay, F. Maddalena, M. Gleyzes, E. Steidl, B. Buisson, G.G. Malliaras, “General fabrication of polymer multielectrode arrays.” Advanced Materials, 25, 2135-2139 (2013).

  48. S. Himmelberger, J. Dacuña, J. Rivnay, L.H. Jimison, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, M.F. Toney, A. Salleo, “Effects of interfaces on microstructure and charge transport in high performance semicrystalline polymer semiconductors.” Advanced Functional Materials, 23, 2091-2098 (2013).

  49. J. Rivnay, S.C.B. Mannsfeld, C.E. Miller, A. Salleo, M.F. Toney, “Quantitative Determination of Organic Semiconductor Microstructure from the Molecular to Device Scale.” Chemical Reviews, 112, 5488 (2012). [Review]

  50. A.J. Kronemeijer, E. Gili, M. Shahid, J. Rivnay, A. Salleo, M. Heeney, H. Sirringhaus, “A Selenophene-based Low-Bandgap Donor-Acceptor Polymer Leading to Fast Ambipolar Logic.” Advanced Materials, 24, 1558 (2012).

  51. C.H. Peters, I.T. Sachs-Quintana, W.R. Mateker, T. Heumueller, J. Rivnay, R. Noriega, Z.M. Beiley, E.T. Hoke, A. Salleo, M.D. McGehee, “The Mechanism of Burn-in Loss in a High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cell.” Advanced Materials, 24, 663 (2012).

  52. K.P. Goetz, Z. Li, J.W. Ward, C. Bougher, J. Rivnay, J. Smith, B. Conrad, S.R. Parkin, T.D. Anthopoulos, A. Salleo, J.E. Anthony, O.D. Jurchescu, “Effect of Acene Length on Electronic Properties in 5-, 6-, and 7-Ringed Heteroacenes,” Advanced Materials, 23, 3698 (2011).

  53. J. Rivnay, R. Steyrleuthner, L.H. Jimison, A. Casadei, Z. Chen, M.F. Toney, A. Facchetti, D. Neher, A. Salleo, “Drastic control of texture in a high performance n-type polymeric semiconductor and implications for charge transport,” Macromolecules, 44, 5246 (2011).

  54. T.W. Holcombe, J.E. Norton, J. Rivnay, C.H. Woo, L. Goris, C. Piliego, G. Griffini, A. Sellinger, J.-L. Brédas, A. Salleo, J.M.J. Fréchet, “Steric Control of the Donor/Acceptor Interface: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Charge Generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 133, 12106 (2011).

  55. J. Rivnay, R. Noriega, R.J. Kline, A. Salleo, M.F. Toney, “Quantitative analysis of lattice disorder and crystallite size in organic semiconductor thin films.” Physical Review B, 84, 045203 (2011).

  56. J. Rivnay, R. Noriega, J.E. Northrup, R.J. Kline, M.F. Toney, A. Salleo, “Structural origin of gap states in semicrystalline polymers and the implications for charge transport.” Physical Review B, 83, 121306 (2011).

  57. J. Rivnay, M.F. Toney, Y. Zheng, I.V. Kauvar, Z. Chen, V. Wagner, A. Facchetti, A. Salleo, “Unconventional Face-On Texture and Exceptional In-Plane Order of a High Mobility n-
    Type Polymer,” Advanced Materials, 22, 4359 (2010).

  58. R. Noriega, J. Rivnay, L. Goris, D. Kalblein, H. Klauk, K. Kern, L. M. Thompson, A. C. Palke, J. F. Stebbins, J. R. Jokisaari, G. Kusinski, A. Salleo, “Probing the electrical properties of highly-doped Al:ZnO nanowire ensembles.” J. Appl.Phys., 107, (2010).

  59. A.C. Arias, D. MacKenzie, I. McCulloch, J. Rivnay, A. Salleo, “Materials and Applications for Large-Area Electronics: Solution-Based Approaches,” Chemical Reviews, 110, 3, (2010)[Review]

  60. J.A. Letizia, J. Rivnay, A. Facchetti, M.A. Ratner, T.J. Marks, “Variable Temperature Mobility Analysis of n-Channel, p-Channel, and Ambipolar Organic Field-Effect Transistors,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 20, 50, (2010).

  61. J. Rivnay, L.H. Jimison, J.E. Northrup, M.F. Toney, R. Noriega, S. Lu, T.J. Marks, A. Facchetti, A. Salleo, “Large modulation of carrier transport by grain-boundary molecular packing and microstructure in organic thin films,” Nature Materials, 8, 952 (2009)

  62. A.C. Mayer, M.F. Toney, S.R. Scully, J. Rivnay, C.J. Brabec, M. Scharber, M. Koppe, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, M.D. McGehee, “Bimolecular Crystals of Fullerenes in Conjugated Polymers and the Implications of Molecular Mixing for Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater, 19, 1173 (2009).

  63. J. Rivnay, L.H. Jimison, M.F. Toney, M.Preiner, N.A. Melosh, A. Salleo, “Interfacial effects in thin films of polymeric semiconductors,” J.Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 26, 1454, (2008).

  64. M. Chabinyc, L.H. Jimison, J. Rivnay, A. Salleo, “Connecting Electrical and Molecular Properties of Semiconducting Polymers for Thin Film Transistors”, MRS Bulletin, 33, 683-689 (2008). [Review]

  65. J.D. Slinker, J. Rivnay, J.S. Moskowitz, J.B. Parker, S. Bernhard, H.D. Abruña, G.G. Malliaras, “Electroluminescent devices from ionic transition metal complexes,” J. Mater. Chem., 17, 2976, (2007). [Review]

  66. D.R. Blasini,* J. Rivnay,* D.-M. Smilgies, J.D. Slinker, S. Flores-Torres, H.D. Abruña, G.G. Malliaras, “Observation of intermediate-range order in a nominally amorphous molecular semiconductor film,” J. Mater. Chem., 17, 1458 (2007).

  67. J.D. Slinker, J. Rivnay, J.A. DeFranco, D.A. Bernards, A.A. Gorodetsky, S.T. Parker, M.P. Cox, R. Rohl, S. Flores-Torres, H.D. Abruña, G.G. Malliaras, “Direct 120 V, 60 Hz operation of an organic light emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 074502 (2006).